In Iran, Turquoise is called “Ferozah," which translated means "victory." It is Iran's national gemstone. The best of Iranian turquoise is rich blue, with less matrix than most turquoise mined elsewhere. It is also distinguished by white patches. Turquoise is never a hard mineral, but Iranian turquoise is usually harder than turquoise mined in other locations. Today, only the turquoise coming from the Southwest U.S. comes close to Iranian turquoise in color richness and beauty.
There are many more Persian Turquoise mines in Iran than listed below, but here are a few known and verified Persian Turquoise mines:
Abo Ishaghi: This old cave was closed 50 years ago, It is said that the oldest cave is this cave, it had the highest quality of turquoise which allowed cutters and pushiers to cut it in a special shape which was sharp head cut. This cut also known as AboIshaghi. Some people also call it Abdo Al'Razaqi.
Rokni - This mine had good quality Turquoise and was excavated from underground to the top of mountain
Khak Ghermez - This mine is known for the "Robin's Egg Blue" Turquoise and a midblue color Turquoise that is cut to exclude any matrix. This is probably the most commonly known Persian Turquoise worldwide.
Turquoise is commercially mined in Iran in just one location: a section of the Ali-mersai mountain range, outside of the city of Mashhad. Mashhad is the capital of the Khorasan province.